19th Regiment Menu


The Instructors, to whom this duty is entrusted, and who are to be answerable for its execution, must possess an accurate knowledge of the part each has to teach, and evince such a clear, firm and concise manner of conveying their instructions as will command from the men a perfect attention to their directions. They must allow for the weak capacity of the Recruit; and be patient, not rigorous, where endeavour and good will are apparent; for quickness is the result of much practice, and ought not at first to be expected.

Recruits must be carried on progressively; they should comprehend one thing before they proceed to another. In the first circumstances of position, the firelock, fingers, elbows, &c., are to be justly placed by the Instructor; when more advanced, they should not be touched; but from the example shown, and the directions given, be taught to correct themselves when admonished. Recruits should not be kept too long at any particular part of their exercise, so as to fatigue or make them uneasy, and marching without arms should be much intermixed with the firelock instruction. Neither fife nor music must on any account be used; it being essential to confirm the Recruit by habit alone in that cadence of step which he is afterwards to maintain in his march to the enemy, amidst every variety of noise and circumstance that may tend to derange him.

The habit here adverted to, is acquired by impressing the time upon the Recruit's mind by tap of drum, and no Recruit or squad of Recruits must, therefore, be permitted to exercise in marching, without the constant. use of plummet, drum, and pace stick; the drum to beat the time only when the squad is halted never when in motion; whenever the superintendent of the drill sees it necessary to give the time, every squad will instantly be halted at the first tap of the drum, and the Recruits be required to give their whole attention to the proper cadence.

In the manner hereafter prescribed, each Recruit must be trained singly, and in successive squads; and until he is perfect in all points of his duty, he is not to join the battalion; - for one awkward man, imperfect in his march, or distorted in his person, will derange his division, and, of course, operate on the battalion and line in a still more injurious manner. Every soldier, on his return from long absence, must be re-drilled before he is permitted to act in the ranks of his company.

Short and frequent drills are always to be preferred to long lessons, which exhaust the attention both of the Instructor and Recruit; and too much pains cannot be taken by those intrusted with the instruction of Recruits to move them on, progressively from squad to squad, according to their merit, so that the quick, intelligent lad may not be kept back by those of inferior capacity. To arrive at the first squad should be made an object of emulation to the young soldier, by diminishing the number and duration of its drills.



OPEN ORDER is taken by each recruit stretching out his right arm and keeping that distance from his right-hand man.

Sec. 1. Position of the Soldier

The equal squareness of the shoulders and body to the front is the first and great principle of the position of a soldier. The heels must be in a line, and closed;-the knees straight: the toes turned out, so that the feet may form an angle of 60 degrees; -the arms hanging close to the body; the elbows turned in and close to the side; -the hands open to the front, with the view of preserving the elbow in the indispensable position, as above described, and thereby of preventing false distances when marching in line; the little fingers lightly touching the seams of the trousers, with the thumb close to the fore-finger; -the belly rather. drawn in, and the breast advanced, but without constraint; -the body upright, but inclining forward, so that the weight of it may principally bear on the fore-part of the feet; -the head to be erect, and the eyes straight to the front.

In order to supple the recruit, open his chest, and give freedom to his muscles, he will be practised in the three first movements of the extension motions as laid down for the Sword Exercise.

Too many methods cannot be used to improve the carriage of the recruit, and banish the air of the rustic. But the greatest care must be taken not to throw the body backward instead of forward, as being contrary to every true principle of movement.

N.B. The words in the margin, which are printed in Italics, are the words of command to be given by the Instructor.

All words of command, and particularly the words Halt and March, must he given distinctly and loudly.

Sec. 2. Standing at Ease.
Stand at Ease. On the words Stand at Ease, the right foot is to be drawn back about six inches, and the greatest part of the weight of the body brought upon it; the left knee a little bent; the hands brought together before the body; the palms being struck smartly together, and that of the right hand then slipped over the back of the left; but the shoulders to be kept back and square; the head to the front, and the whole attitude without constraint.
Attention. On the word Attention, the hands are to fall smartly upon the outside of the thighs; the right heel to be brought up in a line with the left; and the proper unconstrained position of a soldier immediately resumed.

When the recruit falls in for instruction, he is first to be taught to place himself, on the word Attention, in the position above described, to remain perfectly steady, and to give his whole attention to his commander. Before the word Attention is given, and occasionally during the time of drill, the recruit may be allowed to rest by Stand at Ease, as above explained.

When standing at ease for any considerable time in cold weather, the men are permitted to move their limbs, but without quitting their ground, so that upon the word Attention, no one shall have materially lost his dressing in the line. In this case the Stand at Ease is given in the tone of a permission and not of command.

Sec. 3. Eyes to the Right.
Eyes Right.
Eyes Left.
Eyes Front,
On the words Eyes Right, glance the eyes to the right with a slight turn of the head.
At the words Eyes Left, cast the eyes in like manner to the left.
On the words Eyes Front, the look and head are to be directly to the front, the habitual position of the soldier.

These motions are useful on the wheeling of divisions, - or in closing to a flank, - or when dressing is ordered after a halt; and particular attention must be paid, in the several turnings of the eyes, to prevent the soldier from moving his body, which must be preserved perfectly square to the front; but in all marches to the front, the recruit at open order must be taught to select objects in his front, and to march straight upon them: -at close order, the touch, with the preservation of a uniform and proper cadence, must form his only guide in marching.

Sec. 4. The Facings.

In going through the facings the left heel never quits the ground; the body must rather incline forward, and the knees be kept straight.

To the Right, face. 1st. Place the hollow of the right foot smartly against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to the front.
2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the right on both heels.
To the Left, face. 1st. Place the right heel against the hollow of the left foot, keeping the shoulders square to the front.
2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the left on both heels.
To the Right about, face. 1st. Place the ball of the right toe against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to the front.
2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the right about on both heels.
3rd. Bring the right foot smartly back in a line with the left.
To the Left about, face. 1st. Place the right heel against the ball of the left toe, keeping the shoulders square to the front.
2nd. Raise the toes, and turn to the left about on both heels.
3rd. Bring up the right smartly in a line with the left.
Right (or Left) half face. On the word of command Right (or Left) Half Face, each man will make an exact half face, as directed, by drawing back or advancing the right foot one inch, by which the whole will stand individually, in echellon.
Front. When it is intended to resume the original front, the word of command Front will be given, and the whole will face, as accurately as possible, to their former front.
Right (or Left) about three-quarters Face.
When it is necessary to perform the diagonal march to the rear, the recruit will receive the word Right (or Left) about three-quarters face, upon which he brings the ball of the right foot (not the ball of the toe) to the left heel, or the right heel to the ball of the left foot, and makes a three-quarters face in the given direction. Upon the word Front, if he has faced to the right, he fronts to the left; and if he has faced to the left, he fronts to the right.
The feet in the first of the above motions are to be slipped back or brought forward without a jerk; the movement being from the hip, so that the body is kept perfectly steady until faced.

The greatest precision must be observed in these facings, for if they are not exactly executed, a body of men, after being properly dressed, will lose their dressing on every small movement of facing.
Sec. 5. Position in Marching.

In marching, the soldier must maintain the position of the body as directed in Sec. 1. He must be well balanced on his limbs. His arms and hands must be kept perfectly steady by his sides, and on no account be suffered to move or vibrate; care must be taken that the hand does not cling to the thigh, or partake in the least degree of the movement of the limb. The body must be kept erect and square to the front. The movement of the lee, and thigh must spring from the haunch, and be free and natural. The foot must be raised sufficiently high to clear the ground without grazing it, carried straight to the front, and, without being drawn back, placed softly on the ground, so as not to jerk or shake the body in the slightest degree. The bend to be kept well up, and straight to the front, and the eyes not turned to the right or left.

Balance Step.

The recruit being placed in the position of the soldier, as above described, is instructed in the balance step, the object of which is to teach him the free movement of his limbs, preserving at the same time perfect squareness of shoulders, with the utmost steadiness of body, and no labour must be spared to attain this first and most essential object, which forms indeed the very foundation of good marching. The instructor must be careful that the recruit does not contract a habit of drooping or throwing back a shoulder at these motions, which are intended practically to show the true principles of marching, and that steadiness of body is compatible with perfect freedom in the limbs.

1st. Without gaining Ground.
Caution. Balance step without gaining ground, commencing with the left foot.
Front. The left foot is brought gently forward with the toe at the proper angle to the left, the foot about three inches from the ground, the left heel in line with the toe of the right foot.
Rear. When steady, the left foot is brought gently back (without a jerk), the left knee a little bent, the left toe brought close to the right heel. The left foot in this position will not be so flat as to the front, as the toe will be a little depressed.
When steady, the word Front will be given as above, and repeated to the Rear three or four times; to prevent the recruits being fatigued, the word Halt will be given, when the left foot, either advanced, or to the rear, will be brought to the right,

The instructor will afterwards make the recruit balance upon the left foot, advancing and retiring the right in the same manner.

2ndly. Gaining Ground by the word Forward
Front. On the word Front, the left foot is brought gently to the front without a jerk; the knee to be gradually straightened as the foot is brought forward, the toe turned out a little to the left and remaining about three inches from the ground. In this posture he remains for a few seconds only in the first instance, till practice has steadied him in the position
Forward. On this word of command, the left foot is brought to the ground, at 30 inches from heel to heel, while the right foot is raised at the same moment, and continues extended to the rear. The body remains upright, but inclining forwards; the head erect, and neither turned to the right nor left.
Front. On the word Front, the right foot is brought forward, and so on.
Sec. 6. Slow Step.
March. On the word March, the left foot is carried 30 inches to the front, and without being drawn back is placed softly on the ground, so as not to jerk or shake the body; the recruit is to be taught to take 75 of these steps in a minute.

The recruit must be carefully trained, and thoroughly instructed. in this step, as an essential foundation for arriving at accuracy in the paces of more celerity. This is the slowest step at which troops are to move.

Sec. 7. The Halt.
Halt. On the word Halt, let the rear foot be brought upon a line with the advanced one, so as to finish the step which was being taken when the command was given

N.B. The words Halt, dress, - to be considered as one word of command.

Three or four recruits will now be formed in one rank at open distance, and instructed as follows.

Sec. 8. Stepping Out.
Step Out. The squad marches, as already directed, in slow time. On the words Step Out, the recruit must be taught to lengthen his step to 33 inches, by leaning forward a little, but without altering the cadence.

This step is necessary, when a temporary exertion in line, and to the front, is required; and is applied both to slow and quick time; and at the word (slow or quick step) the pace of 30 inches must be resumed.

Sec. 9. Stepping Short.
Step Short.

On the words Step Short, the foot advancing will finish its pace, and afterwards each recruit will step as far as the ball of his toe, and no farther, until the word Forward be given, when the usual pace of 30 inches is to. be taken.

This step is useful when a momentary retardment of either a battalion in line, or of a division in column, shall be required.

Sec. 10. Marking Time.
Mark Time.

On the words Mark Time, the foot then advancing completes its pace, after which the cadence is continued, without gaining any ground, but alternately throwing out the foot and bringing it back square with the other. At the word Forward, the usual pace of 30 inches will be taken.

This step is necessary when a column, division, &c., on the march, has to wait for the coming up of others.

Sec. 11. The Side or Closing Step.

The side or closing step is performed from the halt in quick time by the following commands:

Right Close, Quick March.

In closing to the right, on the word Quick March, eyes are turned to the right, and each man carries his right foot about 10 inches directly to his right (or, if the files are closed, to his neighbour's left foot), and instantly brings up his left foot, till the heel touches his right heel, and proceeds to take the next step in the same manner; the whole with perfect precision of time, shoulders kept square, knees not bent, and in the true line on which the body is formed. At the word Halt, the whole halt, turn their eyes to the front, and are perfectly steady. (Vide Sec. 3, Part II.)

Note. - In closing on rough or broken ground, the knees must necessarily be bent.

Sec. 12. Stepping Back.
Step Back - March.
The Step Back is performed in the slow time and pace of 30 inches, from the halt. On the command Step Back - March, the recruit must be taught to move straight to the rear, preserving his shoulders square to the front, and his body erect.
On the word Halt the foot in front must be brought back square with the other.

A few paces only of the Step Back can be necessary at a time.

Sec. 13. Changing the Feet.
Change Feet. To change the feet in marching, the advanced foot completes its pace, the ball of the other is brought up quickly to the heel of the advanced one, which instantly makes another step forward, so that the cadence may not be lost.

This may be required of an individual, who is stepping With a different foot from the rest of his division; in doing Which, he will in fact take two successive steps with the same foot.

Sec. 14. Oblique Step.
To the Left oblique March.

When the recruit has acquired the regular length and cadence of the slow pace, he is to be taught the oblique step. At the words To the Left oblique -March, without altering his personal squareness of position, he will, when he is to step with his left foot, point and carry it forward 19 inches in the diagonal line, to the left, which gives about 18 inches to the side, and about 13 inches to the front. On the word Two, he will bring his right foot 30 inches forward, so that the right heel be placed 13 inches directly before the left one. In this position he will pause, and on the word Two continue to march, as before directed, by advancing his left foot 19 inches, pausing at each step till confirmed in his position; it being 'essentially necessary to take the greatest care that his shoulders be preserved square to the front. From the combination of these two movements, the general obliquity gained will amount to an angle of about 25 degrees. When the recruit is habituated to the lengths and directions of the step, He must be made to continue the march without pausing, and with firmness; when he has been made perfect in the oblique step, in slow time, he must be instructed in quick time on the same principle.

As all marching (the side step excepted) invariably begins with the left foot, whether the obliquing commences from the halt or on the march, the first diagonal step taken is by the leading foot of the side inclined to, when it comes to its turn, after the command is pronounced.

The squareness of the person, and the habitual cadence step in consequence, are the great directions of the oblique, as well as of the direct, march.

Each recruit should be separately and carefully instructed in the principles of the foregoing sections of the drill. They form the basis of all military movements.

Sec. 15. The Quick Step.

The cadence of the slow pace having become perfectly habitual to the recruits, they are now to be taught to march in quick time, which is 108 steps in a minute, each of 30 inches, making 270 feet in a minute.

Quick March. The command, Quick March, being given with a pause between them, the word Quick is to be considered as a caution, and the whole to remain perfectly steady. On the word March the whole move off, conforming to the direction given in Sec. 5.

After the recruit is perfectly grounded in marching to the front in quick time, all the alterations of step, as above, for slow time, must be practised in the quick time.

This is the pace which will be applied generally to all movements by large as well as small bodies of troops; and therefore the recruit must be trained and thoroughly instructed in this essential part of his duty.

Sec. 16. The Double March.

The directions for the March, in the preceding section, apply in a great degree to this step, which is 150 steps in the minute, each of 36 inches, making 450 feet in a minute.

Double March. On the word Double March, the whole step off together with the left feet; keeping the beads erect, and the shoulders square to the front: the knees are a little bent; the body is more advanced than in the other marches; the arms bang with ease down the outside of the thigh. The instructor will be careful to habituate the recruit to the full pace of 36 inches, otherwise he will get into the habit of a short trot, which would defeat the obvious advantages of this degree of March.
Halt. As directed in Sec. 7.

The word March, given singly, at all times denotes that slow time is to be taken; when the Quick or Double March is meant, the words Quick or Double, as a caution, will precede the word March.

The great advantage attending the constant use of the plummet must he obvious; and the several lengths swinging the times of the different marches in a minute, are as follows:

Slow time
75 steps in the minute
24 in.
96 hun.
Quick time
108 steps in the minute
12 in.
3 hun.
Double March
150 steps in the minute
6 in.
26 hun.

A musket-ball, suspended by a string which is not subject to stretch, and on which are marked the different required lengths, will answer the above purpose, may be easily acquired, and should be frequently compared with an accurate standard in the adjutant's possession. The length of the plummet is to be measured from the point of suspension to the centre of the ball.


Six or eight recruits will now be formed in rank at close files, having a steady well-drilled soldier on their flank to lead, and will then be carefully instructed in the touch, which in close order constitutes the principal guide and regulator in marching. Each man, when properly in line, should feel his right or left-hand man (towards the point of direction) at the thick part of the arm immediately below the elbow, which must continue turned in and close to the side. The fingers are kept straight, the thumb close to the fore-finger, the thumb and fore-finger in a small degree turned out (in order to keep the elbows close), the edge of the hand very slightly touching the thigh, and a little behind the seam of the trousers. The touch must be light, and crowding carefully avoided.

Sec. 17. Dressing when halted.
Dress. Dressing is to be taught equally by the left as by the right. On the word Dress, each individual will cast. his eyes to the point to which he is ordered to dress, with a slight turn of the head, but preserving the shoulders and body square to their front. The whole person of the man must move as may be necessary, and bending backward or forward is not to be permitted. He must take short quick steps, thereby gradually and exactly to gain his position, and on no account be suffered to attempt it by any sudden or violent alteration, which must infallibly derange whatever is beyond him.. The faces of the men, and not their breasts or feet, are the line of dressing Each man is to be able just to distinguish the lower part of the face of the second man beyond.

In dressing, the eyes of the men are always turned to the officer who gives the word Dress; and who is posted at the point by which the body halts; and who from that point corrects his men, on a point at or beyond his opposite flank.

The faults to be avoided, and generally committed by the soldier in dressing, are, passing the line; the head too forward, and body kept back; the shoulders not square the head turned too much.

With a view to establish more exactly the principles on which all dressing depends. the following instructions in the drill of recruits will be observed:

By the Right (or Left) forward Dress

Eyes front.
The right-hand man will be moved up a pace and a quarter (or half), and another soldier, as a second-point, four paces to his right, while the left hand man, or any other person, serves as a corresponding point for the instructor, upon the left. The instructor will then give the word, No. 2, By the right forward Dress, when the second, recruit will take a pace to the front with the left foot, and shuffle up into line with the two points on his right, taking up his touch and dressing at the same time; the instructor, standing clear to the right of the two points, when he sees. that the recruit is properly dressed, and the touch perfect, gives the word Eyes front, that heads may be replaced and remain square to the front.
By the Right (or Left) Dress. When every recruit individually has practised and is perfect in his dressing up. both by right and left forward, he must be taught to dress back by the right and left in the same manner.

The instructor will then cause two or three recruits to dress up and back together, taking care that the touch is always preserved, and afterwards the whole squad together.

No rank or body ought ever to be dressed, without the person on its flank, appointed to dress it, determining, or at least supposing, a line on which the rank or body is to be formed, and for that purpose taking as his object the distant flank man, or a point beyond such flank, or a man thrown out on purpose: dressing must then be made gradually, and progressively, from the fixed point towards the flank one; and each man successively, but quickly, must be brought up into the true line, so as to become a new point, from whence the person directing proceeds in the correction of the others; and he himself, when so directing, must take care that his person, or his eyes at least, be in the true line which he is then giving.

Sec. 18. File Marching.
To the ---- face. The recruits must face, and then be instructed to cover each other exactly in file, so that the head of the man immediately before may conceal the heads of all the others in his front. The strictest observance of all the rules for marching is particularly necessary in marching by files, which is first to be taught at the slow time, and afterwards in quick time.
March. On the word March, the whole are immediately to step off together, gaining at the first step 30 inches, and so continuing each step without increasing the distance betwixt each recruit, every man locking. or placing his advanced foot on the ground, before the spot from whence his preceding man had taken up his. No looking down, nor leaning backward, is to be suffered, on any pretence whatever. The leader is to be directed to march straight forward on some distant objects given him for that purpose, and the recruits made to cover one another during the march, with the most scrupulous exactness: great attention must be paid to prevent them from opening out and losing their compact formation.
Sec. 19. Wheeling of a single Rank, in Slow Time, from the Halt.
Right Wheel. March At the word Right Wheel, the man on the right of the rank faces to the right; on the word March, they step off together, the whole turning their eyes to the left (the wheeling or outward flank), except the man on the left of the rank, who looks inwards, and, during the wheel, becomes a kind of base line for the others to conform to, and maintain the uniformity of front. The outward wheeling man steps the usual pace of 30 inches, the whole observe the same time, but each man shortening his step in proportion as he is nearer to the standing flank on which the wheel is made. During the wheel, the whole remain closed to the standing flank, that is, they touch without incommoding their neighbour; they must not stoop forward, but remain upright: opening out from the standing flank is to be avoided; closing in upon it during the wheel is to be resisted.
Halt, Dress. On the word Halt, Dress, each man, halts immediately, without pressing forward.
Eyes front. The dressing being completed, the squad receives the command Eyes front.

When the recruits are able to perform the wheel with accuracy in the slow time, they must be practised in quick time.

Nothing will tend sooner to enable the recruit to acquire the proper length of step, according to his distance from the pivot, than continuing the wheel without halting for several revolutions of the circle, and also giving the word Halt, Dress, at instants not expected, and when only a 6th, 8th, or any smaller proportion of the circle is completed.

Sec. 20. Wheeling backwards, a single Rank
On the Right, Backwards Wheel. Quick March. At the words On the Right, Backwards Wheel, the, man on the right of the rank faces to his left. At the word Quick, March, the whole step backward in quick time, dressing by the outward wheeling man; those nearest the pivot man making their steps extremely small and those towards the wheeling man increasing them as they are placed nearer to him. The recruit in this wheel must not bend forward, nor be suffered to look down; but, by casting his eyes to the wheeling flank, preserve the dressing of the rank.
On the word Halt, the whole remain perfectly steady, still looking to the wheeling flank till they receive the word Dress.

The recruits should be first practised to wheel backwards at the slow step; and at all times it will be necessary to prevent them from hurrying the pace; an error soldiers are very liable to fall into, particularly in wheeling backwards.

Sec. 21. Changing the Direction by the Wheel of a single Rank on a movable Pivot
Right (or Left) Shoulders forward. When the rank is marching to the front; and is ordered to change its direction to either flank, it receives the word Right (or Left) Shoulders forward; upon which the outward file of the named flank continues to step out at the full pace, and the wheel is performed (according to the principles explained in Section 20) upon the inner file of the other flank, which brings the shoulder gradually round, -- and gaining ground sufficient to circle round the wheeling point (where such is given), marks time, until it receives the word Forward: but the wheel on the movable pivot is always made at the same time at which the body may be moving.
Forward. The commander gives the word Forward, when he sees that the rank has gained the front on which he intends it to move in a perpendicular direction.
Sec. 22. Oblique Marching in Front.
Right oblique. When the squad is marching in front, and receives the word To the right oblique; each man, the first time he raises the right foot, will, instead of throwing it straight forward, carry it in the diagonal direction, as has been already explained in Sec. 14, taking care not to alter the position of his body, shoulders, or head. The greatest attention is to be paid to the shoulders of every man in the squad, that they may remain parallel to the line on which they were first placed, and that the right shoulders do not fall to the rear, which they are very apt to do in obliquing to the right, and which immediately changes the direction of the front.
Forward. On the word Forward, the incline ceases, and the whole march forward. In obliquing to the left, the same rules are to be observed, with the difference of the left leg going to the left, and attention to keep up the left shoulder.

The same instructions that are given for slow time serve also for quick time.

In obliquing to the right, the touch must be preserved to the left, and vice versa, excepting in the obliquing of a battalion, when the touch must always be to the centre.

Sec. 23. Diagonal March.
Right (or Left) half face, March.
This march will be commenced from the halt, by giving the command Right (or Left) half face, as described in Sec. 4, and on the word March, the men move on the diagonal lines upon which they are individually placed in echellon. Upon the command, Halt, Front, the original front is resumed.
Right (or Left) half turn.

Front turn.
When the squad is marching to the front, and it is desired to take an oblique direction, the word Right (or Left) half turn is given, and the men move as above prescribed, - and when it is intended to move to the original front without halting, the word Front turn is given, when each man will turn his body to the front, and move forward without checking the pace.

When the movement is performed to the left, the reverse of the foregoing instructions will take place.

During the diagonal march the leading flank will be the pivot for the time being, for instance, when a squad or company is moving by the right half turn, the right-hand man must pay particular attention to the length of space, and must move perpendicularly to the line he took up when he made his half turn, as the accuracy of his movement may assist very much in preserving the division in its proper position. The other files must be careful that their right arms do not get beyond the centre of the men's backs who precede them in echellon; and if they keep this position, their right feet will just clear the left of the preceding file.


Sec. 24. Position of the Soldier.

When the firelock is shouldered, the person of the soldier remains in the position described under the head of Close order, except that the wrist of the left band is turned a little out, the better to embrace the butt. The firelock is placed in the band, with the two first joints of the fingers grasping the inside of the butt, the thumb alone to appear in front. The piece must be carried at the full length of the arm, the butt a little forward, the fore part nearly even with that of the thigh; the bind part of it lightly touching the thigh, when stationary, without being in the least degree affected by it when in motion. The firelock will rest upon the hollow of the shoulder, and be held firm and steady.

Sec. 25. Different Motions of the Firelock.

The following motions of the firelock will be taught and practised as here set down, until each recruit is perfect in them; they being necessary for the ease of the soldier in the course of exercise.

Supporting arms.
Sloping arms.
Carrying arms.
Ordering arms.
Standing at ease.
Shouldering, from the order.

As prescribed in the Manual Exercise.

The recruit must be accustomed to carry his arms for a considerable time together; it is most essential he should do so, and not be allowed to support or slope them so often as is practised, under the idea that long carrying them is a position of too much constraint.

A company or battalion is never to come to the HALT or FORM IN LINE or to DRESS (which are situations where the greatest accuracy of front is required), but with carried arms. When troops are in motion, arms may be sloped by word of command; and it must here be observed, that when this is the case, the touch to the firelock arm must be kept by the elbow. It is to be understood, as a general rule, that in the double march, as the men make the first step, they slope arms, without any separate word of command; on being halted, arms are instantly carried in the same manner.

Sec. 26. Attention in forming a Squad.

When the SQUAD or division (consisting of from six to eight files) falls in, each man, with carried arms, will take his place in his rank, beginning from the flank to which he is ordered to form; he will dress himself in line by the rule already given, assume the ordered position of a soldier, and stand perfectly steady. Attention must be paid that the files are correctly closed; that the men in the rear rank cover well, looking their file leaders in the middle of the neck; that the rear rank has its proper distance of one pace (30 inches) from the front rank, and that both ranks are equally well dressed.

Sec. 27. Open Order.
Rear Rank, take Open Order.

The recruits being formed in two ranks at close order, on the words Rear Rank take Open Order, the. flank men on the right and left of the rear rank step briskly back one pace, face to their right, and stand covered, to mark the ground on which the rear rank is to halt, and dress at open order; every other individual remains ready to move. On the word March, the dressers front, and the rear rank steps back one pace, dressing by the right.
Sec. 28. Close Order.
Rear Rank take Close Order.

On the words Rear Rank take Close Order, the whole remain perfectly steady; at the word March, the rank closes within one pace.